The Oil and Gas Industry is considered to be the world’s biggest revenue generator. The oil and gas industry is seen as a powerhouse that employs thousands of workers globally while generating billions of dollars each year. As a business operating in the oil and gas industry, we need to stay on top of all Read More ...
In any major business or company, all offered information, discussion of problems, exploring new technologies and work methods, should be taken seriously. Through attending summits, seminars, congresses and other events, you can build business relations and also share information. Upcoming Events in the Oil and Energy Sector 2018: Managing Risks and Costs of Projects 2018: Read More ...
Upstream includes the exploration, for resources, the recovery of these resources, and also the production of natural gas and crude oil. The exploration involves the search for underground and underwater crude oil fields and natural gas fields.
The Midstream sector involves different types of transportation, storage and also the wholesale marketing of the refined products produced from oil and gas. Transportation can take place via pipeline, barge, oil tanker, truck or rail.
The manufacturing, distribution, and selling of the products derived from natural gas and crude oil starts here. The companies delivering these services do not produce the products themselves; they are only using the delivered products to manufacture more products.
Meter proving is when a prover tests and verifies the accuracy of a meter irrespective of whether computerized , also known as SMART technology, or analog. When we talk about meter proving there are plenty of elements and the data files can vary on a whim depending on the particular meter and method of testing. Basically, it’s a gas meter prover for gas meters. Many meter provers will confirm their readings against a preset array as defined in the guides..
Meter proving and meter testing are different. Here’s why.
For starters meter proving happens where a specialist measures the accuracy and reliability of the meter itself. Meter proving in Kindersley is carried out by checking the service meter against a certified prover (dynamic or tank prover, master meter) which is trackable to a national meteorology institute similar to NIST. Among the the majority of popular types of proving is for liquid hydrocarbon and this is frequently the case in pipelines transporting the gas. Exclusive prover connections are necessary for the metering station that will allow parallel measurement of the liquid in the two devices.
Though meter testing has been available more than 100 years the unchanging standard prevails presently as it did in the past. This makes testing through this method is predisposed to lots of different variants and insecurities.
A gas meter prover is a unit that verifies the precision of a gas meter. Municipal and public works are certainly the many widespread employers of meter provers.The responsibility of a meter prover is almost always to basically move a specified amount of air through the meter and checking that with the meter’s own register. When that is done the prover (meter) then takes the data he/she captured in the per cent of air directed to that of the value showed on the meter’s own.
A bell prover has two levels, one inside tank enclosed by yet another external shell. There are two tiers and while the outside layer is typically filled up with oil, the internal layer is known as the bell. The fluid can possibly there be to behave as an air-tight seal for testing. Bell provers are typically counter-weighted to give pressure level that is positive to a line and valve fastened to a meter. We often see wheels on the bell that makes it possible for soft linear movement devoid of risk of jeopardizing the pressure developed by the bell seal moving.
Errors in proving by operators is believe it or not common and must certainly be regarded and adapted. Temperature inconsistencies between the bell air, meter and linking hose pipes could account for many meter proof errors. hardware, human, loose pipes and connections, are Each things that can also be the culprit for inconsistencies.
As we earlier exhibited, each gas type features its own way of meter testing. Natural gas for instance involves a couple of visual inspections just before the PACs are utilized. There are a plethora of other testing methods outside the scope of this article. There are times, orifice meters are transported off-site for confirmation to primary reference devices in laboratory-type facilities, but this testing is pricey and seldom able to duplicate the field factors that affect meter accuracy.
The natural advancements of the computerized bell and PAC controls guided itself to the the application of vacuum driven provers with arrays of sonic nozzles (employing choked flow to provide precise flow rates. This also not only is an advancement in full automation but also savings as it eliminates the need for a bell given testing is done through nozzles and pipes. Testers using vacuum to verify flow rates will apply the Bernoulli’s principle. Computers and PAC components automate the function, and the majority of sonic nozzle provers are capable of displaying not only meter proofs to a user, but are also capable of transmitting proofs as well as some other important data to database systems across a computer network.
This article was written with insights from Harvest Oilfield Services, a company specializing in boilers in Whitecourt, Canada.
Your meters and instruments give you certainty. Performance and safety are both dependent on the accuracy of your tools, and without knowing how accurate they are, you put your teams and your budgets at risk. Measuring the precision of your meters, requires calibrated tools and expertise.
Energy Services company Intricate, WILL mitigate that risk. Intricate’s fleet of Meter Provers have the lowest uncertainty rating available and are operated by an experienced team. Ready to move fast and give you the performance certainty you need. Intricate is reliable, effective and a leader in the field.
Meters are everywhere, on wells, batteries, gas plant, pump stations and operations spread out everywhere; what you need is mobile capability.
Inticate’s provers come to you for your inline and bench proving needs. With state of the art provers that are designed with safety, accuracy, and efficiency in mind to ensure a complete job that will meet your objectives.
The potential impact of the activities around an Oil and Gas Production site can be significant. The impact will depend on factors like the amount of earth disturbed by the drilling of wells. The size and number of wells drilled can also have a major effect. The area of land occupied by the operations facilities and the time that the oil and gas project was working the site will have a direct effect on the wildlife and plant life.
Environmental Influences of:
Exploration, surveys, testing and exploratory drilling:
Noise; primary sources would be the noise that earth-moving vehicles make, seismic surveys, drill rig operations and blasting.
Air Quality; emissions of dust thrown up by the earth moving equipment, other vehicles, and surveys will have an influence on the air quality. Drill rig exhaust will not only affect the quality but also the smell of the air. Emissions during this phase will not have a big influence on climate change. The impact will depend on the duration, amount and location of the work.
Cultural Resources; that are buried are unlikely to be hindered. Resources on the surface might be disturbed by traffic and ground clearing, etc.
Ecological Resources; will be affected minimally during exploration. Wildlife might be disturbed by seismic surveys. Surveys done during this time will help developers in placing the site and facilities of the project in a way that will cause a minimum of impact on the surroundings.
Drilling and Development:
Waste and Hazardous Material Management; industrial and solid waste will be generated during the development phase. Mostly this will not be hazardous. The waste would likely be taken off-site to be disposed of.
Drilling waste; is another matter because it will include hydraulic fluids, used oil, spilled fuel and much more. Adverse effects can occur if this hazardous waste is not managed and handled properly.
Health and Safety; drilling and development do have the risk of serious accidents happening and also injuries that are associated with oil and gas production operations.
Water Resources; water quality can degrade because of the increase of sedimentation, salinity, spills, etc. Water depletion can also become a problem. During drilling, water is used to keep dust under control, making concrete mixes, and in the drilling wells. Drilling activities can also affect the flow of surface water.
There are lots of factors that can have an influence where an oil and gas project is underway. However, these Energy sector companies have strict methods and processes to keep the influence they have on the environment and surrounding communities. In certain ways they can also have a positive influence in the community, increasing revenue and helping to better the economy.
The Midstream sector of the oil and gas industry is primarily about the transportation of the crude and raw products from where the site where they are extracted to the refineries. Midstream is sometimes paired together with either the Upstream or Downstream sectors.
The transportation of natural gas and raw oil is a process that is highly technical. It involves the compression of fluids. In order to be able to transport the fluids from drilling sites, it needs to be under necessary pressures. Transportation can be via pipelines and in tankers.
Midstream Sector Responsibilities:
Tanker Sea Commercial Oil Ship Nautical Vessel
Transportation from drilling sites: The transportation of natural gas and raw oil products, via pipeline or tanker.
Treating raw materials: Removing all impurities such as hydrogen sulphide of water vapour.
By removing the impurities and compressing the fluid helps to maximize the amounts that can be transported and therefore also the efficiency and profits of companies. This is a very important aspect in the oil and gas sector of the industry.
Once the oil and natural gas have been transported through the midstream section, there are some more processes and transformation it must undergo before it can be sold.
Downstream at the refinery:
Final Processing: The crude oil is processed into finished products, for instance, lubricants, synthetic rubber, fertilizers, plastics, asphalt, pesticides, heating oil, and pharmaceuticals. This is also where crude oil is converted into forms that are usable in everyday life, like, gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, propane and even antifreeze.
Distribution of the final product: Distributing the products to their final destination in the market.
Marketing: Downstream is also the place where companies and customers meet and where supply meets demand. To make sure everyone knows what products are carried and available, marketing these products comes into play.
Retail outlets like gas stations, is part of the downstream section. The efficiency of the other sections can have an influence on the price of products.
Upstream is where it all starts. The Upstream oil sector is where the exploration and the production of products in this industry take place. Exploration includes the search for all potential natural gas fields, and for all potential underwater and underground crude oil findings.
Basically, crude oil is a hydrocarbon mixture that is formed from living organisms; therefore, it is also a fossil fuel. A big amount of organic matter will be needed in the supplying of the necessary carbon and hydrogen atoms. You will only find this organic material buried beneath the surface where oxygen cannot destroy it.
The same process happens inside the ocean; organisms die, sink to the bottom and accumulate there. With time, the remains break down into hydrocarbons, and there they wait to be mined.
This is where the search, exploration, and mining come into play in regard to the oil and gas industry. You first have to find these rich fields before you can start to retrieve it.
Steps in the Upstream sector of the Oil and Gas Production Chain:
Geological Surveys: A team of geologists will be dispatched to conduct surveys over a potential area. Underground, the crude oil is typically found in a cavern, also called a “trap”, “source” or “reservoir”. When surveys and seismic data determine that a cavern does exist, they need to measure the size of the cavern and then construct a 3D map of what is underground.
Determining if the Reserve will be viable: An estimate needs to be formed of how much oil the reserve holds. Scientists examine seismic information and models to determine this, the size of the reservoir. porousness and saturation features are part of the variables they will put together. Their conclusions will give different results and an average of these results will become the consensus of the amount of oil located in that reservoir.
Drilling: The drilling of exploratory wells to find the best sites for drilling operations, and then operating these wells to recover the crude oil and natural gas bringing it to the surface, is the next step in the chain.
Upstream are basically the searching and finding of oil and gas fields through exploration, and then determining the viability of the find through drilling Exploratory wells. Then the process of bringing the find to the surface can start.